UA DE EN ES FR IT NL PL BY PT Hygiene and health pt es fr it nl pl by ua de en
sections
  • Hygiene as a science
  • the Sketch of history of development of hygiene
  • Sanitary-and-epidemiologic service sssr
  • Methods of hygienic researches
  • Metrology and standardization
  • Physical factors of air, their hygienic value
  • Humidity of air
  • Solar radiation
  • Weather, a climate, a microclimate
  • Structure of atmospheric air and its hygienic value
  • Hygienic value of pollution of atmospheric air of the closed premises
  • air pollution Sources
  • Features vozniknovenijaizagrjaznenija air and its elimination
  • Sanitary protection of atmospheric air
  • Hygienic and epidemiological value of soil
  • Structure of soil and its hygienic value
  • Pollution and soil self-cleaning
  • Systems of clearing of the occupied places
  • Sewage. The hygienic characteristic
  • Ways of clearing and bezzarazhivanija sewage
  • Clearing of industrial sewage.
  • Hygiene of water and water supply of the occupied places
  • Pollution and self-cleaning of reservoirs
  • Sanitary protection of reservoirs
  • Sanitary requirements to quality of water
  • the Hygienic characteristic of sources of water supply
  • Systems of water supply of the occupied places
  • Head constructions of a waterpipe
  • the Decentralized (local) water supply
  • the Hygienic characteristic of building materials
  • Hygienic requirements to dwelling illumination
  • Hygienic requirements to a dwelling microclimate
  • Hygiene of a food
  • the Subject and problems of hygiene of a food
  • Requirement for mineral elements
  • Physiological norms of a food
  • the Factors defining comprehensibility of food
  • Vitaminization and enrichment by amino acids of foodstuff and ready dishes
  • Methods of conservation of foodstuff
  • Action povyshenoj concentration of hydrogen ions
  • the Hygienic characteristic of foodstuff of an animal origin
  • Food fats and oils
  • the Hygienic characteristic of foodstuff of a phytogenesis
  • Vegetables and fruit
  • the Hygienic characteristic of canned food, preservov and concentrates
  • Flavouring substances and food additives
  • Food poisonings
  • Hygiene of public catering
  • Sanitary rules of trade in foodstuff
  • Hygienic requirements to storage and transportation of foodstuff
  • Personal hygiene of workers of public catering establishments
  • Problems of hygiene of work
  • Industrial harm and professional illnesses
  • Action on an organism of electromagnetic radiation
  • the Statement the ministry zdavoohranenija sssr
  • Mineral elements
  • Laboratory researches
  • Trading premises
  • the sanitary inspection Organization on hygiene of a food in sssr
  • pollution Sources
  • Value of work in the Soviet society.
  • Sediment bowls
  • vodonosnye layers
  • Underground sources
  • temperature Action on fibers
  • Air pollutions
  • soil Structure
  • Speed of movement of air
  • Sanitary value of waters
  • dwelling Ventilation
  • the Conclusion of the enterprises
  •  

    Humidity of air

    It Is caused by the maintenance of water steams in it. As well as the temperature, humidity changes depending on a climatic zone, a season, affinity of the sea. The maintenance of water steams in air is expressed in paskaljah (Pas) or in grammes in 1 m 3 air. With increase in water steams their elasticity increases in air, and at certain temperature air becomes sated (dew-point). Excess of a limit of saturation causes exudation of moisture in the form of dew, a fog, hoarfrost etc. To each temperature of air there corresponds certain limiting degree of saturation by its water steams: the above the temperature, the is more saturation degree as warm air contains bolshee quantity of water steams. return_links(1); ?>

    Water steams arrive in atmosphere as a result of evaporation of water from the seas, oceans, lakes, the rivers, soil, plants. In premises an additional source of humidity is the moisture evaporating from a surface of lungs, skin of people, at food manufacturing, linen drying etc. return_links(1); ?>

    To the humidity characteristic apply following concepts. return_links(1); ?>

    Absolute humidity - elasticity (pressure) of the water steams containing in air at the moment of research. It is expressed in paskaljah (Pas) or in g/m 3 . return_links(1); ?>

    The Maximum humidity - elasticity (pressure) of water steams at full saturation of air by a moisture prjdannoj to temperature or quantity of water steams in the grammes, 1 m necessary for full saturation g air at the given temperature. return_links(1); ?>

    Relative humidity - the relation of absolute humidity to maximum, expressed in percentage. return_links(1); ?>

    Deficiency of saturation - a difference between the maximum and absolute humidity. Relative humidity and deficiency of saturation which give representation about degree of saturation of air water steams jj have the greatest hygienic value and allow to judge intensity and speed of evaporation and #8216; sweat from a body surface at this or that temperature. The less relative humidity, the faster in such air will occur evaporation of water and that more intensively teplootdacha by evaporation. Optimum the relative humidity equal of 30-60% is considered. return_links(1); ?>

    The Big humidity of air adversely operates on the person. It depends on air temperature. So, at the big humidity and low temperature of air heat return by konvektsii sharply increases, that can lead to excessive cooling of an organism. G.V.Hlopin specified, that at low temperature damp air a good conductor becomes warm and causes sensation zjabkosti. The damp skin and the humidified fabrics of clothes thus also become more teploprovodnymi therefore crude air seems to colder. return_links(1); ?>

    Long stay of people indoors with the raised humidity and low temperature of air (more low 10-15 В°s) has harmful influence on an organism, expressed in resistibility fall to infectious diseases, and also diseases of the top respiratory ways, joints, muscles and peripheral nerves. From clinical supervision it is known, that the crude and cold climate conducts to increase of disease by a diphtheria, a tuberculosis, a nephrite etc. return_links(1); ?>

    At high humidity and temperature of air the basic way of return of heat - evaporation, i.e. potootdelenie. However intensity and speed potootdelenija depend on humidity of air more. The above humidity of air, the occurs evaporation from a skin surface in this connection human body overheating is possible more difficultly. The general state of health thus worsens, working capacity goes down. return_links(1); ?>

    From the told follows, that air with high humidity under any, temperature conditions is harmful to an organism. Dry air is transferred easier. Adverse influence of dry air is shown only at the relative humidity equal less of 20%, and expressed by sensation of dryness of a mucous membrane of respiratory ways. return_links(1); ?>

    Non-uniform heating of a terrestrial surface is the reason of movement of air. Movement of air beds in a horizontal direction is called as a wind. Speed of movement of air (wind) is expressed in metres per second. Movement of air with a speed more than 1 km/s is perceived as a wind, and less 1 km/s not felt as a human body. At speed more than 5-7 km/s are shown irritating action of a wind. Influence of movement of air on a thermal exchange is expressed in increase in return of heat of an organism first of all for the account konvektsii as moving air carries from a body nagretye, adjoining sloivozduha, and on their place colder come. And such change of air at the expense of its movement during the summer period plays a positive role as warns overheating, and in the winter - negative, promotes organism overcooling. The wind is reflex strengthens also metabolism processes: Raises teploproduktsija in process of fall of temperature and increase in speed of movement of air. return_links(1); ?>

    часткі
  • Гігіена як навука
  • Нарыс гісторыі развіцця гігіены
  • Санітарна-эпідэміялагічная служба ссср
  • Метады гігіенічных даследаванняў
  • Метралогія і стандартызацыя
  • Фізічныя фактары паветра, іх гігіенічнае значэнне
  • Вільготнасць паветра
  • Сонечная радыяцыя
  • Надвор'е, клімат, мікраклімат
  • Склад атмасфернага паветра і яго гігіенічнае значэнне
  • Гігіенічнае значэнне забруджвання атмасфернага паветра зачыненых памяшканняў
  • Крыніцы забруджвання паветра
  • Асаблівасці возникновенияизагрязнения паветра і яго ўхіленне
  • Санітарная ахова атмасфернага паветра
  • Гігіенічнае і эпідэміялагічнае значэнне глебы
  • Склад глебы і яго гігіенічнае значэнне
  • Забруджванне і самаачышчэнне глебы
  • Сістэмы ачысткі населеных месцаў
  • Сцёкавыя воды. Гігіенічная характарыстыка
  • Спосабы ачысткі і беззараживания сцёкавых вод
  • Ачыстка прамысловых сцёкавых вод.
  • Гігіена вады і водазабеспячэння населеных месцаў
  • Забруджванне і самаачышчэнне вадаёмаў
  • Санітарная ахова вадаёмаў
  • Санітарныя патрабаванні да якасці вады
  • Гігіенічная характарыстыка крыніц водазабеспячэння
  • Сістэмы водазабеспячэння населеных месцаў
  • Галаўныя збудаванні вадаправода
  • Дэцэнтралізаванае(мясцовае)водазабеспячэнне
  • Гігіенічная характарыстыка будаўнічых матэрыялаў
  • Гігіенічныя патрабаванні да асвятлення жылля
  • Гігіенічныя патрабаванні да мікраклімату жылля
  • Гігіена сілкавання
  • Прадмет і задачы гігіены сілкавання
  • Запатрабаванне ў мінеральных элементах
  • Фізіялагічныя нормы сілкавання
  • Фактары, якія вызначаюць засваяльнасць ежы
  • Вітамінізацыя і ўзбагачэнне амінакіслотамі харчовых прадуктаў і гатовых страў
  • Метады кансервавання харчовых прадуктаў
  • Дзеянне повышеной канцэнтрацыі вадародных іёнаў
  • Гігіенічная характарыстыка харчовых прадуктаў жывёльнага паходжання
  • Харчовыя тлушчы і маслы
  • Гігіенічная характарыстыка харчовых прадуктаў расліннага паходжання
  • Гародніна і садавіна
  • Гігіенічная характарыстыка кансерваў, пресервов і канцэнтратаў
  • Смакавыя рэчывы і харчовыя дадаткі
  • Харчовыя атручванні
  • Гігіена грамадскага сілкавання
  • Санітарныя правілы гандлю харчовымі прадуктамі
  • Гігіенічныя патрабаванні да захоўвання і транспартаванню харчовых прадуктаў
  • Асабістая гігіена працаўнікоў прадпрыемстваў грамадскага сілкавання
  • Задачы гігіены працы
  • Вытворчыя шкоднасці і прафесійныя хваробы
  • Дзеянне на арганізм электрамагнітнага выпраменьвання
  • Сцвярджэнне міністэрствам здавоохранения ссср
  • Мінеральныя элементы
  • Лабараторныя даследаванні
  • Гандлёвыя памяшканні
  • Арганізацыя санітарнага нагляду па гігіене сілкавання ў ссср
  • Крыніцы забруджвання
  • Значэнне працы ў савецкім грамадстве.
  • Адстойнікі
  • Ваданосныя пласты
  • Падземныя крыніцы
  • Дзеянне тэмпературы на бялкі
  • Забруджванні паветра
  • Склад глебы
  • Хуткасць руху паветра
  • Санітарнае значэнне вод
  • Вентыляцыя жылля
  • Выснова прадпрыемстваў
  •